Augmented Reality Head-Up Display Fullface Mask (ARHUDFM) is a complex device that is not easy to understand at a first look because there are few relevant examples to compare. Therefore, we ask you to discard as much as possible all prejudices, past experience, authoritative names and opinions previously expressed by anyone. Then it will become easier to understand the ideas, algorithms, mechanics of the processes associated with the functions of this device and its applications.
It is important to understand that this technology is intended for 2030-2060, i.e. the period of its widespread deployment and use. We need to look at the future of life and technology in these coming years without looking back, then our plan will become better understood. If we don't do it, someone else will.
The experience of the appearance of new technologies shows that in the first years many people evaluate them with a certain degree of skepticism. For example, who were YouTube and Amazon in 2004? Why do they have such a strong head start over the rest in "the red ocean market" today?
But there are also negative examples where companies have lost their appeal because their spirit of innovation has dried up. Therefore, our backlog is very extensive and deep. We will be able to offer users and customers something new not only now, but also in 15-20 years.
The U.S. is known to set trends. Therefore, after a couple of years, other countries will also catch up. And if so, then serious investments will come to the segment.
In addition, it is necessary to get ahead of the question in advance: "How is it possible to do this with the forces of a small startup so far?" Our answer, we are sure, will be understood and accepted by you with confidence: "Of course, our research and development is innovative. But we are swimming in the middle of a turbulent river of innovations of tens of thousands of people. Most of the Open Source software functions and technologies, electronic components and integrated circuits have already been created and are available to us in the role of integrators. In accordance with our idea, we assemble a constructor from many puzzles. Therefore, the share of pure innovation in this product does not exceed 10%. And if several large corporations in the 2000s with the help of several thousand engineers with a budget of more than a billion did something similar in 8-10 years, then in the 2020s, something even better with the help of its own several dozen engineers plus Open Source, with a budget of less than 50 million, can make a startup within 5-7 years, moving from simple to more complex, update after update. While creating an open platform for third-party development teams to join (this is also a DoD requirement)."
We are an international team committed to democracy, peace, human rights and health. We create capabilitites for strengthening defense in the countries of NATO and its allies. We understand that only a significant superiority in military force can keep the peace, as it deprives dictators and terrorists of the hope of even a short-term victory. Therefore, we share the ideas and strategic goals that are described in the many policy documents and requests for innovative proposals that we receive from the defense agencies of the U.S., EU, Switzerland, UK, Canada, Israel, Australia, South Korea, Japan.
We are developing ARHUDFM technology so that the military personnel of these states can:
- Increase efficiency (lethality; consistency; savings in time, ammunition, equipment and carry weight; logistics)
- Increase security (threat and impact detection distance; detection protection; repositioning; quick assistance; vitals body signs tracking, Care Under Fire (auto stopping acute bleeding) and Resuscitation on the Move (automatic fluid and cardiopulmonary resuscitation); face and respiratory protection
- Reduce stress (psychological and physical; drinking system; monitoring of vital signs)
- Improve skills (learning and training quality; mentoring; best practice tips; AI assistance)
The meaning of Human Augmentation is complex and relatively new to people, so it will not be superfluous to specify what it includes.
- Expanded visual perception of the environment using sensors
- Augmented visual perception with numeric, symbolic and graphical data
- Augmented visual perception of processed data of received radio frequencies of transponders, scanning of a RF wideband, RF source direction finding, radars and anti-radars
- Mixed natural auditory perception of the environment and auditory perception of superimposed channels of filtered frequencies, dedicated sound waves, audio interface and voice communication
- Augmented human cognitive capabilities with the help of Artificial Intelligence technologies:
- Machine perception - perception through Computer Vision, Computer Audition, RF Scan without user distraction (in the background)
- Machine analysis of information about the environment - analysis and thinking based on machine perception, providing ready-made results and recommendations to the user, sending messages to the analytical control center
- Machine attention - concentration and prioritization of machine perception and analysis processes, notifications and critical messages about threats to the user
- Machine memory - Machine Learning, incl. remembering the best practices of many users, and extracting data "just in time" for the user on his request and without request in the form of tips
- AI-based voice assistant - Generated Pre-trained Transformer (GPT) - in this case, a small language model and small generative Artificial Intelligence that can understand the natural language of users and other people in several languages, translate into other languages, independently form commands for applications, take into account cognitive stereotypes (habits) and user preferences, independently interact with other AI-based systems, interpret the results of applications and other AI systems - is an important part of the interface
|Machine perception||CVC||ML-based image detection and recognition, user attention control|
|CAC||ML-based audio detection and recognition, user attention control|
|STT||user pronounce recognition|
|SDRS||RF scanning can run in the background and contact the user in case of threats or the need to make a decision, uses ML to detect and recognize the RF graphic shape of 2D / 3D spectrum, waterfall patterns for signals, and multiple carriers, TSK integrated|
|RFDD||uses ML algorhitms to identify the type of threat by comparing different RF patterns, CVC and CAC integrated|
|EODD||ML-based RF scan modes, CVC integrated|
|Machine analysis||TESS||voice assistant, VUI support incl. apps control|
|TSK||creation and auto-completion of auto-tasks, task management assistance, BMS and L-STE integrated|
|NAV, PATH||selecting the optimal route, position and position change; TSK, BMS and L-STE integrated|
|RPAC||ML-based control, autonomous planning and execution of the drone mission, TSK integrated|
|ANLS||mission performance analysis integrated with existing BMS and L-STE systems|
|IFF||can assign the status, use optimal directional interrogation signal mode automatically, TSK integrated|
|STM||can change the mode automatically|
|P2P||computing acceleration (p2p, FPGA/ASIC and CPU cores balancing), multi-user computing (p2p)|
|CHAT||mental clusterization, user auto-reply to the system and other users, automatic event messages|
|WGR||automatic performance Intra-Domain and Cross-Domain Interaction rules; CHAT, TSK, BMS and L-STE integrated|
|SDR2||can change the mode automatically incl. digital data transmission at hopping frequencies (DEFH)|
|ANTC||automatic beam direction tracking, support up to 48 connections at the same time|
|Machine attention||TIPS||best practices from many users, rapid and best decisions|
|FA||target selection and prioritization, fire correction, TSK integrated|
|VM||user AI-based virtual avatar, tactical exercises in L-STE, personal mentoring|
|VBS||monitoring, warnings, resuscitation tips and auto-mode, TSK integrated|
|Machine memory||TIPS, VM||ML-based, incl. remembering the best practices of many users|
|TRSL||context-aware machine translation|
The use of Machine Learning technologies on the client (user device) reduces the training period many times over, as the most complex functions and calculations are performed automatically without user involvement. And in cases where the final decision must be made by a human, AI offers recommendations based on best practices. The user can accept the tip or reject it.
Any user after 2 months of training can be a highly skilled communications engineer, electronic warfare engineer, radar and counter-radar engineer, experienced data analyst, drone operator, first class rifleman and paramedic. Without the help of AI, it takes many years of training and practice for the user to do this.
Human vision is 3/4 of all information received, more than 75%. The benefits for military personnel combine 5 areas at the same time:
- the capability for the user to see beyond human abilities (zoom in, at dusk, in the dark, in front of a dazzling light source, in the invisible infrared, in the invisible radio frequency range)
- the capability for the user to see simultaneously from different angles (front, back, view from the camera of the sight, view from the camera of a drone or robot, view from the camera of another user)
- the capability to detect and recognize objects, people and faces, movement, flashes, heat and smoke traces, identify friend or foe within line of sight (LOS) and beyond line of sight (BLOS), incl. in the background, i.e. 100% attention focus always
- the capability to use synthetic visual aids: navigation grids and signs, maps, virtual enemy during training, symbolic and text messages, graphic information, digital data
- the capability, without losing the overview of the environment, to have several combined visual layers and parallel visual channels
To implement these capabilities, optical lenses, 8K UHD (ultra high-definition video), HDR (high dynamic range), SWIR (short wavelength infrared), LWIR (long wavelength infrared) sensors, SDR (software defined radio) integrated circuits are built into the device. And other electronic circuits and modules. Integration with digital sights, drone and robot cameras, cameras of other users, RF antennas for different bands, passive covert surveillance radar (PCSR), metal re-radiation radar (MET3R), weather stations and anemometers, vitals body sensors is also provided.
Human hearing is about 1/7 of the total amount of information, more than 13%. The benefits for military personnel in terms of audio perception and at the same time hearing protection is something to think about in combination with other important advantages of this technology.
The openings at the bottom of the headphones ear cups are permanently open for ambient sound perception with minimal attenuation (less than 10 dB SPL). When the threshold values of the ambient sound pressure are exceeded, these openings are closed with soundproof sealed dampers. The response time of the electromagnetic pushers of the soundproof damper drives is less than 3 ms (0.003 s). This is faster than the period of movement of a blast wave at a distance of 8 yards and sound wave at a distance 4 ft.
There are several reasons why soundproof dampers are used:
- to reduce the sound pressure level for hearing safety by ∆80 dB SPL to 15-85 dB SPL (upper limit of normal)
- to reduce the level of real-time audio monitoring (audio environment) to distinguish other audio information well
- to reduce the risk and severity of air concussion injury
Important facts about lethality and injury
How exactly with the help of this technology we can improve the safety of military personnel needs to be researched based on statistics.
The main damaging factors during combat operations are the following:
- hit by bullets
- damage by non-preformed fragments of explosive ordnance (bomb; land and controlled mine; IED; artillery, mortar, and tank shell; missile, grenade)
- damage by preformed fragments of explosive ordnance
- shock wave (overpressure) damage from explosive ordnance
- shock wave (overpressure) damage from volumetric detonating ordnance - thermobaric and enhanced blast explosives (TBX and EBX)
- temperature and toxic effects of explosive detonation products (soot, CO2, CO, NO, HCN, P, etc.)
- secondary mechanical damage (fragments of destroyed objects, barriers, stones, body parts, dust)
Localization of injuries according to the statistics of military field surgery in Iraq and Afghanistan: head and neck - 16%, chest - 8%, abdomen and lower back - 7%, limbs - 56%, combined injuries - 13%. The development of technologies in the field of body armor for protecting the chest, lower back and pelvis over the past 100 years has reduced the number of injuries by 3 times. But against the background of a general decrease in the percentage of manpower losses, the proportion of head injuries remains high - up to 20-25% and does not change. In the same way as the share of damage to the limbs - up to 50-60%.
The majority of lethality from 50 to 70% are associated with bullet wounds. Non-lethal cases of bullet wounds account for 30-40%.
What could help reduce the number of lethality and injury:
- increase in combat range
- reduction in combat time
- increase in shooting accuracy
- identification of friend-or-foe (IFF)
- improving the collection and exchange of IRS data on enemy positions from and for each military person
- improving cross-domain interaction to suppress enemy positions for each military person
- the speed of first aid ("Care Under Fire", "buddy aid", "en route care"), incl. auto tourniquets for limbs and monitoring of vital signs
- improved logistics and speed of evacuation
The number of lethality from fragment wounds in modern conflicts is 20-40%. Non-lethal cases - from 40 to 50%.
What could help reduce the number of lethality and injury (same as above, and plus):
- early warning of mortar and artillery fire
- early warning about drones and robots
- instant messaging between all military personnel within the unit
- improved navigation and coordination of tactical tasks performed by smaller units ("move apart - hit together")
- face protection and improved head protection from fragments at the trajectory end and at a tangent
Mine-explosive wounds are the cause of 10-15% of lethal cases. And about 15-20% non-lethal.
What could help reduce the number of lethality and injury (same as above, and plus):
- protection of the entire head and hearing organs from air concussion
- the ability to detect anti-personnel and anti-tank mines, trip wires and IEDs for each military person
Some examples and facts
For example, during the explosion of explosive fragmentation projectile of 155 mm caliber with 10 kg of IMX-104 explosive, there are several damaging factors (according to the degree of danger):
- fragmentation of up to 2000-4000 elements on average 1 g (0.5-8.0 g) at speeds over 600 m/s (initial speed 50-1400 m/s) in the damage field at a range of up to 200 yd, the irregular shape of the fragments contributes to their rapid loss kinetic energy
- the impact of a shock wave at a range of up to 20 yd, not only in the line of sight, but also in a shelter or behind an obstacle (leaking shock wave)
- the impact of a sound wave up to 190 dB SPL, not only in the line of sight, causing acoustic trauma, neurological and mental disorders
- thermal burn of the face and upper respiratory tract
- poisoning by toxic substances, primarily carbon monoxide and nitric oxide
Fragment damage in an explosion
- with a mass of steel balls (diameter about 6.25 mm) and fragments ≤1.0 g and an energy of about 26-58 J, penetrating wounds of the skull are observed, at 20-60 J - penetrating wounds of the chest with damage to the ribs, and with an energy of 25-60 J - fractures of the tubular bones of the limbs
- severe injury to an unprotected part of the body is caused by fragments weighing more than 0.5 g with a kinetic energy of more than 100 J / cm 2
- body armor and helmet is effective against most types of fragment damage, but is ineffective against small arms
- light high-velocity fragments inflict the most damage, but lose speed faster with distance
Impact of shock wave
- at a distance of up to 8 yd from such an explosion (caliber 155 mm), almost every damaging factor will be lethal
- at a distance of up to 20 yd, there is compression in front of the shock wave front up to ∆ 250-350 kPa and a discharge below the atmospheric norm of 100 kPa after the shock wave front, the initial speed of which is up to 3000 m/s, causing barotrauma, loss of combat capability (∆ 150-200 kPa - 7-10 days and short-term hearing loss, ∆ 200-250 kPa - 20-30 days with loss of consciousness up to 3 minutes and long-term speech and hearing disorder, ∆ 250-300 kPa - 45-60 days with loss of consciousness up to 30 minutes and the probability of lethality, up to ∆ 350 kPa and more - disability with loss of consciousness for more than 30 minutes with a high probability of lethality)
- far from the epicenter, the shock wave that has lost its strength causes closed injuries to internal organs
- in most cases, even with a non-danger damage, there is a loss of combat capability for 3-5 minutes or more
- according to statistics, on average, during the field training, military persons on foot are exposed to explosive effects up to 5 times a day, but artillery and mortar crews - from 30 to 300 times a day
- despite the fact that the impact of the shock wave is carried out on the entire human body, damage is primarily caused to the most vulnerable organs:
- hearing organs (at ∆Р 103.4 kPa, with a probability of 50%, a rupture of the eardrums is observed, while the threshold for damage to the eardrum is ∆ 34.5 kPa)
- vision, brain (contusion of the eyeball, swelling of the brain and craniocerebral injuries when the head hits other hard surfaces)
- liver and lungs (∆Р 170-200 kPa is the threshold for lung damage, ∆Р 345-400 kPa is defined as the onset of severe lung damage)
- in addition to mechanical damage to the lungs, the injury causes severe irritation of the autonomic nervous system, a response occurs in the form of hemodynamic disturbances, then hemostasis and hemodiapedesis of blood cells and alveoli, in addition, bronchiolar spasm is observed, which contributes to the formation of foci of atelectasis and emphysema
Face protection and improved head protection
- energy of 100 J/cm 2 and more, according to medical data, most small-caliber fragments have when they enter the human body, from which the multi-layered body of the ARHUDFM mask made of composite material (> 400 J/cm2) protect
- at a distance of 8 m or more, in a shelter or behind an obstacle, when using the lower part of the ARHUDFM mask that protects the respiratory organs and the face, in the case of an overpressure jump of the shock wave front, the ear canals, nasal passages, oral cavity and eyeballs are protected by the mask body, seals, non-return valves, air buffer and air filters that reduce the damaging factors of air concussion, stunning, thermal and chemical effects during an explosion
- also, additional protection against a overpressure jump of the shock wave front on the occipital part of the head is performed by the occipital part of the mask (body and dampers), when the schock wave front moves from the front (leaking wave), behind, from right and left
- this feature is not the main (!) but an accompanying benefit of using ARHUDFM for the user, because reduces the risk of damage only to the head area - however, the risk of damage to the lungs, neck, and other internal organs during air concussion, even with a shock wave flowing into shelters and behind obstacles, and even more the risk of fregment wounds is just as high (fragments 1-3 g, 680 m/s, at a distance of 10 yd)
- it is extremely important to constantly monitor the parameters of a person’s life after an injury and timely identify violations for medical care or evacuation. This can be assisted by vitals body sensors in the mask kit.
We deliberately placed emphasis on some issues of the strategy for the development of military tactics and security issues at the beginning of the text. We have repeatedly come across a very superficial frivolous assessment of the design of the device from the outside and a biased opinion without a detailed study of the truly disruptive capabilities that this technology offers to most military personnel and not only on the battlefield. This is a deeply thought-out technology based on numerous studies and statistics. It is designed to save the lives and health of thousands of people, and ultimately hundreds of thousands of people, including the unjustified victims of military conflicts among the civilian population.
Further, you will learn and see how the following features of ARHUDFM help the user to identify and suppress threats, as well as multiply the efficiency in performing tactical tasks in different domains, improve training and exchange of skills among military personnel.
Lower part of the mask:
- protects respiratory organs from dust, gases, aerosols, bacteria and viruses
- provides a functional drinking system
- reduces the risk of barotrauma and the degree of injury from air concussion during an explosion
- isolates the user's voice during communications and voice commands
- prevents fogging of the mask visor
- does not obstruct breathing due to the design with very low resistance
The hardware part is capable of completely replacing in the future (also reducing the weight and cost of equipment, getting rid of cables on the body):
|Equipment||Price, $||Weight, g||Notice||Price, $||Weight, g|
|Samsung Tablet PC 10"||800||470||-||-|
|Night Vision Binoculars||8800||740||~500g + 1 battery 60g (15 hr), 4 batteries 240g (50hr)||-||-|
|Ballistic Meteo Station||900||120||-||-|
|Multi-channel Handheld Radio||5600||1250||-||-|
|Tourniquet CAT 8pcs||290||600||-||-|
|3 external antennas VHF / UHV / L/S||800||310||multiband, dual-band, wideband||?||?|
|ARHUDFM full set||-||-||over 14 hours of continuous operation||3400||1300|
|Continuous Wind Capture impellers 2pcs||-||-||increased accuracy in measuring wind speed and direction, hands free||150||80|
|8 auto tourniquets||-||-||contains sensors (adhesive gel reusable electrodes) of ECG, pulse, blood pressure, saturation, temperature; controlled by VBS app via Bluetooth spring cocked mechanism with additional electromechanical string tensioner and electromagnetic lock||2000||1120|
|Care Under Fire set||-||-||elastic belt with pockets, plasma substitute 700 ml, anticoagulant and other solutions 100 ml, automatic infusion therapy (fluid resuscitation) system, adhesive gel reusable electrodes for monitoring and defibrillation, automatic defibrillator, 2 pneumatic pumps for pulmonary resuscitation||2800||1300|
|Software Defined Antenna||-||-||Rx / Tx, 2 MHz - 8 GHz, 48 patch antennas (RF beams) for Comms, RF scanner, Radio Direction Finding, Radar Detection, Passive Radar, Drone Detection, Remote Control||1600||250|
|Full kit||18991||6995||15.4 lbs vs 13.3 lbs||9950||6050|
|Tactical Mine Detector||9500||6360||diving depth - down to 78 in, search head - D 10.5 in, metal-only anti-personnel (AP) and anti-tank (AT) mines (ground penetrating radar (GPR) and highly sensitive metal detector (MD))||-||-|
|Handheld metal re-radiation radar||-||-||diving depth - down to 4-8 in, search spot D 9.6 in, battery up to 4 hours, SHF impulse metal re-radiation detection and Computer Vision integrated (metal and non-metal mines on the ground)||1800||210|
|Optional battery up to 1.1kWh||-||-||over 72 hours of continuous operation, powered by a defibrillator and pneumatic pumps (4x12, max 48pcs LiMgCoAl 26650 3.7V 5500mah)||1400||4600|
|Telescopic sight 8x||3368||900||-||-|
|Digital sight 24x||-||-||1200||300|
|Total||31859||14255||31.4 lbs vs 24.6 lbs||14350||11160|
- the customer direct benefits is -55% in price difference and -25% in the weight
- it is likely that with the distribution partner (Lockheed Martin, Northrop Grumman, BAE Systems, Elbit Systems, Rheinmetall, General Dynamics, Palantir, etc.) the price will increase, but we expect that the difference in this case will be more than 20%
- new disruptive capabilitites for performance, accuracy and safety
- "more lethal first-shot shooter"
- "this means they can use less rounds to overwhelm an enemy"
- "it’s all about making an accurate decision"
- "the product line gives squad leaders or individual riflemen more time to make a decision to eliminate that threat if necessary"
Facts for comparison:
- we expect to reduce at least halve the mass of additional power batteries (10.1 lbs, 1.1 kWh, over 72 hours of continuous operation) within 3-4 years as battery technology advances
- technologies for cardiac monitoring, health monitoring using sensors, automatic defibrillation, automatic resuscitation on the move have been used for more than 10-20 years; however, with the help of modern components and technologies, we are able to make them much more compact and lighter so that they can be included in the standard set of equipment (like body armor, knee pads, gloves, ballistic helmet) to give the military an extra chance to stay alive in a potentially extreme situation
- projected price of ARHUDFM is lower than the cost of one M1128 155 mm artillery shell (~$4000)
- a full set of equipment is 47% cheaper and 2 pounds lighter, but the difference in capabilities is huge
Areas of research
|Public External Sections:||Public Wiki Sections:||Not-Public Wiki Sections:||Not-Public Wiki Sections:|
See also product details
|Hardware Details:||Functional Apps Details:||Executive Apps Details:||Service Apps Details:|
- e.g., there are already controllers for remote control of drones and robots, passive radars, software-defined radio and software-defined antennas, Battle Management Systems, L-STE, Hand Tracking, Computer Vision, language models and Generative Pre-trained Transformers based on Artificial Intelligence, and many other technologies that will be able to develop faster using the ARHUDFM platform
- Wikipedia, "GPT"
- Washington DC: The Joint Staff, DoD Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms, (Nov. 2021)
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